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AI-200-2CE

AI-200-2CE is an effective initiator for anionic polymerization, including the synthesis of amine terminated polydienes. The chain extension (CE) provides increased solubility

Markets: Polymers
CAS #: 16853-85-3

Dibutylmagnesium 14% in Hexane

DBM is a hydrocarbon soluble, non-pyrophoric dialkylmagnesium compound. In order to increase hydrocarbon solubility, there is a 10 mole% n-octyl group also present. DBM is used to metalate amines, alcohols, and other acidic substrates to afford the corresponding magnesium compounds. DBM is also an excellent indirect source of anhydrous MgCl2 or MgBr2, when reacted with the appropriate anhydrous acid or halogenating reagent. DBM is used as a promoter for Ziegler-Natta polyolefin catalyst systems. For leading references, consult 1) Polymer 1995, 36, 2995; 2) Polymer International, John Wiley & Sons: 2002; Vol. 51 (8), pp 729-737.

Markets: Polymers Pharmaceuticals & Agrochemicals
CAS #: 39881-32-8

Dibutylmagnesium 17% in Heptane

DBM is a hydrocarbon soluble, non-pyrophoric dialkylmagnesium compound. In order to increase hydrocarbon solubility, there is a 10 mole% n-octyl group also present. DBM is used to metalate amines, alcohols, and other acidic substrates to afford the corresponding magnesium compounds. DBM is also an excellent indirect source of anhydrous MgCl2 or MgBr2, when reacted with the appropriate anhydrous acid or halogenating reagent. DBM is used as a promoter for Ziegler-Natta polyolefin catalyst systems. For leading references, consult 1) Polymer 1995, 36, 2995; 2) Polymer International, John Wiley & Sons: 2002; Vol. 51 (8), pp 729-737.

Markets: Polymers Pharmaceuticals & Agrochemicals
CAS #: 39881-32-8

Lectro® Lyte 600, Lithium Chloride

An electrochemical grade of lithium chloride used as a component of the electrolyte in lithium batteries.

Markets: Energy Storage & Battery Systems
CAS #: 7447-41-8

Lectro® Lyte 700, Lithium Fluoride

An electrochemical grade of lithium fluoride used as a component of the electrolyte in lithium batteries.

Markets: Energy Storage & Battery Systems
CAS #: 7789-24-4

Lectro® Max 400, Lithium Ingot

Electrochemical grade lithium ingot, custom made to your diameter and length requirements within Livent's extensive capability, is used as the anode in lithium batteries. Lithium, being both the lightest and the most electronegative, provides the highest electrochemical equivalence of all metals.

Markets: Energy Storage & Battery Systems Aerospace
CAS #: 7439-93-1

Lectro® Max 410, Lithium Aluminum Alloy Ingot

Electrochemical grade aluminum lithium alloy ingot, custom made to your dimensional requirements within Livent's extensive capability, is used as the anode in lithium batteries offering enhanced properties not available with pure Lithium while maintaining similar electrochemical equivalence. Lithium, being both the lightest and the most electronegative, provides the highest electrochemical equivalence of all metals.

Markets: Energy Storage & Battery Systems Aerospace
CAS #: 7439-93-2

LifeTech® Superfines

LifeTech superfines are the medium fine of the LifeTech grades of lithium carbonate available from Livent. Because of its fine particle size and narrow particle size distribution, this product has been chosen as the grade of choice where reactivity and performance are based on the surface area of the lithium carbonate particles providing controllable, uniform and predictable rates of reaction. Since it is the medium of the grades, it is not as reactive as the ultrafines, but more reactive than the fines. If a different reaction rate is desired, the other LifeTech grades should be evaluated in use.

Markets: Energy Storage & Battery Systems
CAS #: 554-13-2

LifeTech® Ultrafines

LifeTech ultrafines is the finest of the LifeTech grades of lithium carbonate available from Livent. Because of its fine particle size and narrow particle size distribution, this product has been chosen as the grade of choice where reactivity and performance are based on the surface area of the lithium carbonate particles providing controllable, uniform and predictable rates of reaction. Since it is the finest of the grades, it is also the most reactive in these situations. If a slower reaction is desired, the other LifeTech grades should be evaluated in use.

Markets: Industrial
CAS #: 554-13-2

LiMIT® 101

Uninhibited Lithium Chloride dehumidification system solution

Markets: Industrial
CAS #: 7447-41-8

LiMIT® 201

Molybdate inhibited Dehumidification system solution

Markets: Industrial
CAS #: 7447-41-8

LiMIT® 301

Corrosion inhibiting Dehumidifying system solution

Markets: Industrial
CAS #: 7447-41-8

Lithium Carbonate, ACS Grade

Additive in specialty glasses and low-expansion ceramics, analytical agent.

Markets: Energy Storage & Battery Systems Industrial
CAS #: 554-13-2

Lithium Carbonate, Battery Grade

A free-flowing, odorless white powder with guaranteed 99.5 wt% purity and a relatively fine particle size. Battery grade product is a superior purity grade product for use as a precursor in making critical battery materials.

Markets: Energy Storage & Battery Systems
CAS #: 554-13-2

Lithium Carbonate, Industrial Grade

A free-flowing, odorless white powder with guaranteed 99.0 wt% purity and a relatively fine particle size. Industrial Grade product is useful in the manufacture of glass, frits, other ceramics and a variety of specialized applications.

Markets: Industrial
CAS #: 554-13-2

Lithium Carbonate, Micronized Battery Grade

A free-flowing, odorless white powder with guaranteed 99.5 wt% purity and a 5 µm D50 particle size. Micronized Battery grade product is a superior purity grade product for use as a precursor in making critical battery materials.

Markets: Energy Storage & Battery Systems
CAS #: 554-13-2

Lithium Carbonate, Micronized Technical Grade

A free-flowing, odorless white powder with guaranteed 99.3 wt% purity and a 5 µm D50 particle size. Micronized Technical Grade product is a higher purity grade product for use as a precursor in making critical battery materials, is useful in the manufacture of glass, frits, other ceramics and a variety of specialized applications.

Markets: Industrial
CAS #: 554-13-2

Lithium Carbonate, Pharmaceutical Grade

Pharmaceutical grade approved by FDA for treatment of bipolar disorder and manic depressive psychosis.

Markets: Pharmaceuticals & Agrochemicals
CAS #: 554-13-2

Lithium Carbonate, Technical Grade

A free-flowing, odorless white powder with guaranteed 99.3 wt% purity and a relatively fine particle size. Technical Grade product is a higher purity grade for use as a precursor in making critical battery materials, is useful in the manufacture of glass, frits, other ceramics and a variety of specialized applications.

Markets: Energy Storage & Battery Systems Industrial
CAS #: 554-13-2

Lithium Chloride ACS Grade

ACS grade used for Electrolyte for dry cells used at low temperatures, catalyst in certain oxidation reactions, solubilizer for polyamides and cellulose when used with amide solvents, chlorinating agent for steroid substrates.

Markets: Industrial
CAS #: 7447-41-8

Lithium Chloride Anhydrous Purified

Electrolyte for dry cells used at low temperatures, catalyst in certain oxidation reactions, solubilizer for polyamides and cellulose when used with amide solvents, chlorinating agent for steroid substrates.

Markets: Energy Storage & Battery Systems Industrial
CAS #: 7447-41-8

Lithium Chloride Anhydrous Technical Grade

Molten salt chemistry and metallurgy, brazing fluxes, catalyst for organic oxidation reactions, electrolyte in dry cells used in low temperatures, and stabilizer in textile fiber spinning solutions. Solubilizer for polyamides and cellulose when used with amide solvents, chlorinating agent for steroid agents. Desiccant for drying applications, tracer in wastewater.

Markets: Industrial
CAS #: 7447-41-8

Lithium Chloride Industrial Grade

Molten salt chemistry and metallurgy, brazing fluxes, catalyst for organic oxidation reactions, electrolyte in dry cells used in low temperatures, and stabilizer in textile fiber spinning solutions. Solubilizer for polyamides and cellulose when used with amide solvents, chlorinating agent for steroid agents. Desiccant for drying applications, tracer in wastewater.

Markets: Industrial
CAS #: 7447-41-8

Lithium Chloride Solution

Deicing solutions, low-freezing solutions for fire extinguishers, catalyst, and dehumidifying systems, photosensitive developer compositions

Markets: Industrial
CAS #: 7447-41-8

Lithium Diisopropylamide (LDA 9505)

LDA is a non-pyrophoric hindered non-nucleophilic strong base widely used for the generation of carbanions1, including the initiation of anionic polymerization2. (1) Wakefield Organolithium Methods; Academic Press: New York, 1988, 32-44. (2) J.Polym.Sci. Part A: Polym. Chem. 1994, 32, 2425. This product circumvents the generation and evolution of butane associated with the preparation of LDA by the reaction of n-butyllithium and diisopropylamine.

Markets: Industrial
CAS #: 4111-54-0

Lithium Fluoride Technical Grade

Powerful flux in enamels, glasses and glazes, ingredient in brazing and welding fluxes, molten salt chemistry and metallurgy, and heat sink material.

Markets: Industrial
CAS #: 7789-24-4

Lithium Hexamethyldisilazide (LHS) 24% in THF

LHS is a non-pyrophoric strong base, widely employed in organic synthesis as a metalation agent. The principle advantages of this reagent are the improved selectivity obtained in deprotonation reactions and the enhanced thermal stability. It is employed as a base in generating enolates for the preparation of lactone precursors. (1) J.Org. Chem. 1993, 58, 7304. (2) Synlett 1993, 507. (3) Tetrahedron 1994, 50, 9061. LHS is offered as a THF solution, and is therefore simple to transfer from the shipping container to a reactor or storage vessel. LHS is a more stable base than lithium diisopropylamide (LDA).

Markets: Pharmaceuticals & Agrochemicals
CAS #: 4039-32-1

Lithium Hydroxide Monohydrate

A free-flowing, granular solid used in the production of cathode active material for lithium-ion batteries. It is also well suited for use in the production of lithium greases, dyes, resins, coatings, water treatment, and many other specialty chemicals.

Markets: Energy Storage & Battery Systems Industrial Grease
CAS #: 1310-66-3

Lithium Hydroxide Monohydrate, High Purity

Ultra-pure product suitable for use in the production of electrolyte salts and additives, and other specialty applications.

Markets: Energy Storage & Battery Systems
CAS #: 1310-66-3

Lithium Metal, Alloy Grade

Used in the production of lightweight aluminum lithium alloys, magnesium lithium alloys, and other similar lightweight metal applications, lithium metal enhances the finished properties.

Markets: Energy Storage & Battery Systems Aerospace
CAS #: 7439-93-2

Lithium Metal, Alloy Grade High Purity

High purity alloy grade lithium metal with a lower impurity profile than our standard alloy grade metal is offered to meet the demanding requirements of the production of lightweight aluminum lithium alloys, magnesium lithium alloys, and other similar lightweight metal applications. The purity of this grade of lithium metal enhances the finished product properties and is especially desirable within the aerospace and automotive industries.

Markets: Energy Storage & Battery Systems Aerospace
CAS #: 7439-93-2

Lithium Metal, Catalyst Grade

Lithium metal with a 1% max concentration of Sodium (Na),is used as a precursor in the synthesis of various pharmaceuticals and as a catalyst for polymerization.

Markets: Industrial Pharmaceuticals & Agrochemicals
CAS #: 7439-93-2

Lithium Metal, Technical Grade

The unique properties of lithium metal allow it to be used in various applications. Lithium has an atomic number of 3 and an atomic weight of 6.941. It is slightly harder than sodium, but softer than lead, and is extremely light with a density of 0.531 g/cm3, or about half that of water. The wide range between the melting point of 180.5°C and the boiling point of 1336°C along with its excellent heat capacity makes lithium a good medium for heat sink or heat transfer applications. Lithium is also a strong reducing agent and reacts readily even with weak oxidizers--reacting with nitrogen at ambient temperature. Even though lithium is a powerful reducing agent in many reactions, it is less reactive than the other elements in the alkali metals group.

Markets: Industrial
CAS #: 7439-93-2

Lithium Methoxide (LiOMe) 10% in Methanol

LiOMe is a mild base used mainly in organic synthesis, most often in transesterifications. This reagent is offered currently in methanol solution of LiOMe (2.2M) and therefore is very easy to transfer from shipping container to storage or reactor. On contact with moisture, it is converted to methanol and lithium hydroxide causing the solution to become cloudy. For leading references, consult J. Mater. Res. 1999, 14, 1510.

Markets: Polymers
CAS #: 865-34-9

Lithium Phosphate

Constituent in low-expansion porcelain enamel glazes and polymer intermediates.

Markets: Industrial
CAS #: 10377-52-3

Lithium t-Amoxide (LTA) in Heptane

Lithium t-amoxide is a strong base for organic synthesis. It can be used as an alternative to lithium tert-butoxide when ether solvents are to be avoided due to its greater solubility in hydrocarbons.

Markets: Pharmaceuticals & Agrochemicals
CAS #: 53535-81-2

Lithium t-Butoxide (LTB) 2.0M in THF Solution

LTB is a mild base used mainly in organic synthesis. It can also be used in conjunction with organometallic reagents/catalysts to modify their reactivity and selectivity. This tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution of LTB is very easy to transfer from shipping container to storage or reactor. The solution is flammable and corrosive. Solutions tend to darken when exposed to air. On contact with moisture, LTB is converted to t-butanol and lithium hydroxide, causing the solution to become cloudy.

Markets: Pharmaceuticals & Agrochemicals
CAS #: 1907-33-1

Lithium t-Butoxide (LTB) in 10% Heptane

LTB is a mild base used mainly in organic synthesis. It can also be used in conjunction with organometallic reagents/catalysts to modify their reactivity and selectivity. This tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution of LTB is very easy to transfer from shipping container to storage or reactor. The solution is flammable and corrosive. Solutions tend to darken when exposed to air. On contact with moisture, LTB is converted to t-butanol and lithium hydroxide, causing the solution to become cloudy

Markets: Pharmaceuticals & Agrochemicals
CAS #: 1907-33-1

Lithium tri-tert-butoxyaluminum hydride (TBLAH)

Lithium tri-tert-butoxyaluminum hydride is less reactive than lithium aluminum hydride (LAH) and is very useful in selective reductions of acyl halides, aldehydes, ketones, and esters. This reagent generally shows increased solubility, particularly at low temperatures in organic solvents. For reviews see: 1) H.C. Brown; J.Am.Chem.Soc. 1964, 86, 1089; 2) J. Malek; M. Cerny, Synthesis, 1972, 217; and 3) J. Malek, Org. React. 1985, 34,1.

Markets: Pharmaceuticals & Agrochemicals
CAS #: 17476-04-9

n-Butyllithium in Cyclohexane (15% soln)

n-Butyllithium is a very strong base, exceedingly useful in organic synthesis. NBL has found particular utility in deprotonation and metal–halogen exchange reactions. NBL is also a very effective initiator of anionic polymerization of styrene and conjugated dienes. The synthesis of solution SBR and of styrenic thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs), in particular, is facilitated by NBL. References: The Chemistry of Organolithium Compounds, ed. Zvi Rappoport and Ilan Marek, Wiley, 2004, West Sussex, England.

Markets: Polymers Pharmaceuticals & Agrochemicals
CAS #: 109-72-8

n-Butyllithium in Cyclohexane (20% soln)

n-Butyllithium is a very strong base, exceedingly useful in organic synthesis. NBL has found particular utility in deprotonation and metal–halogen exchange reactions. NBL is also a very effective initiator of anionic polymerization of styrene and conjugated dienes. The synthesis of solution SBR and of styrenic thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs), in particular, is facilitated by NBL. References: The Chemistry of Organolithium Compounds, ed. Zvi Rappoport and Ilan Marek, Wiley, 2004, West Sussex, England.

Markets: Polymers Pharmaceuticals & Agrochemicals
CAS #: 109-

n-Butyllithium in Cyclohexane (24% soln)

n-Butyllithium is a very strong base, exceedingly useful in organic synthesis. NBL has found particular utility in deprotonation and metal–halogen exchange reactions. NBL is also a very effective initiator of anionic polymerization of styrene and conjugated dienes. The synthesis of solution SBR and of styrenic thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs), in particular, is facilitated by NBL. References: The Chemistry of Organolithium Compounds, ed. Zvi Rappoport and Ilan Marek, Wiley, 2004, West Sussex, England.

Markets: Polymers Pharmaceuticals & Agrochemicals
CAS #: 109-72-8

n-Butyllithium in Cyclohexane (Concentrate)

n-Butyllithium is a very strong base, exceedingly useful in organic synthesis. NBL has found particular utility in deprotonation and metal–halogen exchange reactions. NBL is also a very effective initiator of anionic polymerization of styrene and conjugated dienes. The synthesis of solution SBR and of styrenic thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs), in particular, is facilitated by NBL. References: The Chemistry of Organolithium Compounds, ed. Zvi Rappoport and Ilan Marek, Wiley, 2004, West Sussex, England.

Markets: Polymers Pharmaceuticals & Agrochemicals
CAS #: 109-72-8

n-Butyllithium in Heptane (15% Soln)

n-Butyllithium is a very strong base, exceedingly useful in organic synthesis. NBL has found particular utility in deprotonation and metal–halogen exchange reactions. NBL is also a very effective initiator of anionic polymerization of styrene and conjugated dienes. The synthesis of solution SBR and of styrenic thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs), in particular, is facilitated by NBL. References: The Chemistry of Organolithium Compounds, ed. Zvi Rappoport and Ilan Marek, Wiley, 2004, West Sussex, England.

Markets: Polymers Pharmaceuticals & Agrochemicals
CAS #: 109-72-8

n-Butyllithium in Heptane (24% Soln)

n-Butyllithium is a very strong base, exceedingly useful in organic synthesis. NBL has found particular utility in deprotonation and metal–halogen exchange reactions. NBL is also a very effective initiator of anionic polymerization of styrene and conjugated dienes. The synthesis of solution SBR and of styrenic thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs), in particular, is facilitated by NBL. References: The Chemistry of Organolithium Compounds, ed. Zvi Rappoport and Ilan Marek, Wiley, 2004, West Sussex, England.

Markets: Polymers Pharmaceuticals & Agrochemicals
CAS #: 109-72-8

n-Butyllithium in Hexanes (15% soln)

n-Butyllithium is a very strong base, exceedingly useful in organic synthesis. NBL has found particular utility in deprotonation and metal–halogen exchange reactions. NBL is also a very effective initiator of anionic polymerization of styrene and conjugated dienes. The synthesis of solution SBR and of styrenic thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs), in particular, is facilitated by NBL. References: The Chemistry of Organolithium Compounds, ed. Zvi Rappoport and Ilan Marek, Wiley, 2004, West Sussex, England.

Markets: Polymers Pharmaceuticals & Agrochemicals
CAS #: 109-72-8

n-Butyllithium in Hexanes (24% soln)

n-Butyllithium is a very strong base, exceedingly useful in organic synthesis. NBL has found particular utility in deprotonation and metal–halogen exchange reactions. NBL is also a very effective initiator of anionic polymerization of styrene and conjugated dienes. The synthesis of solution SBR and of styrenic thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs), in particular, is facilitated by NBL. References: The Chemistry of Organolithium Compounds, ed. Zvi Rappoport and Ilan Marek, Wiley, 2004, West Sussex, England.

Markets: Polymers Pharmaceuticals & Agrochemicals
CAS #: 109-72-8

n-Butyllithium in Hexanes (30 wt% soln)

n-Butyllithium is a very strong base, exceedingly useful in organic synthesis. NBL has found particular utility in deprotonation and metal–halogen exchange reactions. NBL is also a very effective initiator of anionic polymerization of styrene and conjugated dienes. The synthesis of solution SBR and of styrenic thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs), in particular, is facilitated by NBL. References: The Chemistry of Organolithium Compounds, ed. Zvi Rappoport and Ilan Marek, Wiley, 2004, West Sussex, England.

Markets: Polymers Pharmaceuticals & Agrochemicals
CAS #: 109-72-8

n-Butyllithium in Hexanes (85% soln)

n-Butyllithium is a very strong base, exceedingly useful in organic synthesis. NBL has found particular utility in deprotonation and metal–halogen exchange reactions. NBL is also a very effective initiator of anionic polymerization of styrene and conjugated dienes. The synthesis of solution SBR and of styrenic thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs), in particular, is facilitated by NBL. References: The Chemistry of Organolithium Compounds, ed. Zvi Rappoport and Ilan Marek, Wiley, 2004, West Sussex, England.

Markets: Polymers Pharmaceuticals & Agrochemicals
CAS #: 109-72-8

n-Butyllithium in Toluene (10% Soln)

n-Butyllithium is a very strong base, exceedingly useful in organic synthesis. NBL has found particular utility in deprotonation and metal–halogen exchange reactions. NBL is also a very effective initiator of anionic polymerization of styrene and conjugated dienes. The synthesis of solution SBR and of styrenic thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs), in particular, is facilitated by NBL. References: The Chemistry of Organolithium Compounds, ed. Zvi Rappoport and Ilan Marek, Wiley, 2004, West Sussex, England.

Markets: Polymers Pharmaceuticals & Agrochemicals
CAS #: 109-72-8

n-Butyllithium in Toluene (20% Soln)

n-Butyllithium is a very strong base, exceedingly useful in organic synthesis. NBL has found particular utility in deprotonation and metal–halogen exchange reactions. NBL is also a very effective initiator of anionic polymerization of styrene and conjugated dienes. The synthesis of solution SBR and of styrenic thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs), in particular, is facilitated by NBL. References: The Chemistry of Organolithium Compounds, ed. Zvi Rappoport and Ilan Marek, Wiley, 2004, West Sussex, England.

Markets: Polymers Pharmaceuticals & Agrochemicals
CAS #: 109-72-8

n-Hexyllithium 33% in Hexanes (HxLi)

n-Hexyllithium is a non-pyrophoric strong base, primarily used in organic synthesis in deprotonation reactions and as a lithiation reagent. The advantage of this reagent is that the by-product of a deprotonation reaction is n-hexanes. n-Hexanes is less volatile and has a higher flash point than the n-butane generated from a deprotonation with n-butyllithium. 1) The Chemistry of Organolithium Compounds; Pergamon: Oxford, 1974; 2) Organolithium Methods; Academic Press: London, 1988.

Markets: Polymers
CAS #: 21369-64-2

sec-Butyllithium in Cyclohexane

sec-Butyllithium is a very strong base, exceedingly useful in organic synthesis. SBL has found particular utility in the ortho metallation of aromatic substrates. SBL is also a very effective initiator of anionic polymerization of styrene and conjugated dienes. The synthesis of solution SBR and of styrenic thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs), in particular, is facilitated by SBL. References: The Chemistry of Organolithium Compounds, ed. Zvi Rappoport and Ilan Marek, Wiley, 2004, West Sussex, England.

Markets: Polymers Pharmaceuticals & Agrochemicals
CAS #: 598-30-1

Stabilized Lithium Metal Powder – SLMP®

Lectro® Max Powder (SLMP®) enables a new generation of Li-ion batteries by providing an independent source for lithium, which opens up choices for both anode and cathode materials. Introducing lithium in a stabilized powder form with the anode host material, such as Si and Sn-based, to form a lithium-ion system leads to a higher energy battery with more efficient utilization of lithium. Using non-lithium providing cathodes like manganese, vanadium or other metal oxides and metal fluorides that are more overcharge tolerant and potentially have lower costs, leads to safer and cheaper batteries. When used in combination, these materials can potentially double the energy density of the current lithium-ion battery. Lectro® Max Powder (SLMP®) could be used to replace thin lithium foil applications and in Fusion Research Devices to improve plasma performance.

Markets: Energy Storage & Battery Systems
CAS #: 7439-93-2

tert-Butyllithium (TBL) in Heptane

This formulation of t-Butyllithium in Heptane, while still pyrophoric, has a significantly higher flash point than the traditional pentane formulation. TBL is particularly useful in lithium-halogen exchange reactions. TBL can be used as a strong base in organic synthesis. TBL is more reactive than the t-butyl Grignard reagent in nucleophilic additions to carbonyl and nitrile substrates. TBL is also useful in the displacement of halide or alkoxide ligands of inorganic compounds, such as Phosphorus, Silicon, Tin, and Titanium. References: The Chemistry of Organolithium Compounds, ed. Zvi Rappoport and Ilan Marek, Wiley, 2004, West Sussex, England.

Markets: Polymers Pharmaceuticals & Agrochemicals
CAS #: 594-19-4